– International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD)
The International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) was established under the United Nations in 1977 as the outcome of the 1974 World Food Conference. IFAD aims to reduce povertyin rural areas in developing countries. The institution’s headquarteris in Rome.
-International Labor Organization (ILO)
ILO is an establishment intended to improve the standards on labor laws of countries and take this practice forward. Only tripartite U.N. agency, since 1919, the ILO brings together governments, employers and workers representatives of 186 member States to set labor standards, develop policies and devise programs promoting decent work for all women and men.It is centrally located in Geneva, Switzerland.
ILO Website: http://www.ilo.org
-United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)
As a private organization of The United Nations, UNESCO was established in 1946. The law of this institution in London in November 1945 was accepted in a meeting attended by representatives of 44 countries. Headquartered in Paris, and the General Conference, the Executive Council, and the Secretariat all being the three organs of UNESCOworks to achieve established goals such as education, science and culture in each of its member states through the National Commissions.
UNESCO Website: http://en.unesco.org/
-United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO)
UNIDO is a specialized agency for Vienna, Austria-based United Nations.It promotes industrial development for poverty reduction, inclusive globalization and environmental sustainability. The goals are to resolve issues by finding certain project financing available for the development of industry and modernization, new investments, to assure operation of existing facilities, development of human resources, technology transfer and educating scientific staff of the least developed countries with technical assistance covering issues such as raising development issues in an international level.
UNIDO Website: http://www.unido.org
-World Bank Group (WBG)
The World Bank Group (WBG) was created by five international organizations, with a goal to support developing countriesby leveraged loans . It is the largest and most famous development bank in the world and is an observer at the United Nations Development Group.The bank is based in Washington, D.C.In the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference (1 to 22 July 1944) ,Bretton Woods system International Agreement was accepted, followed byWBGearning an official existence on December 27, 1945. The Institution began operations on June 25, 1946, and got approved for the first loan on May 9, 1947. 250 million US Dollars was given to France for post war reconstruction.
The World Bank Group consists of five organizations:
The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD)was established in 1944 together with The Bretton Woods Agreement and International Monetary Fund. IBRD is an organization that gives loans to the World Bank. IBRD lends to governments of middle-income and creditworthy low-income countries.Loans granted by the IBRD, improve the functioning of the national economy by developing prepared programs relating highways, schools, hospitals and government investment in infrastructure.
-The International Development Association
The International Development Association (IDA) provides interest-free loans- called credits-and grants to governments of the poorest countries.Together, IBRD and IDA make up the World Bank. Headquartered in Washington, D.C., IDA provides zero interest loans for 35-40 year tem to countries below the poverty line.The loans taken in these countries can be paid in terms of their own currencies. Other than that, to have use in a better way ofeducation, health care, basic services such as clean water and sanitation, IDA supports the investment with reforms aimed at employment and economic development.
–The International Finance Corporation
Established in 1956, The International Finance Corporation (IFC) is the largest global development institution focused exclusively in the private sector. We help developing countries achieve sustainable growth by financing investment, mobilizing capital in international financial markets, and providing advisory services to businesses and governments.
-The Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency
The Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA) was created in 1988 to promote foreign direct investment into developing countries to support economic growth, reduce poverty, and improve people’s lives. MIGA fulfills this by offering political risk insurance to investors and lenders.
– The International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes
The International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID) was established in1965. Provides international facilities for conciliation and arbitration of investment disputes. Turkey has joined this organization in 1987.
World Bank Website: http://www.worldbank.org/
-World Health Organization (WHO)
In 1945, the United Nations conference that was held in San Franciscorecognized in this period that the health of all people was fundamental to ensure peace and security in the world therefore accepted Chinese and Brazilian delegates to arrange a meeting to establish an “International Health Organization” with consensus. The United Nations (UN) Economic and Social Councilprepared for the meeting headed by Prof. Dr. Rene Sard and a technical committee of 15 people. Technical committee determined the agenda of the meeting in a short time, for the future establishment of an international health organization prepared a draft of the constitution and determined the decisions to be taken.
The primary role is to direct and coordinate international health within the United Nations’ system. Main areas of work are health systems, promoting health through the life-course, incommunicable and communicable diseases, corporate services, and preparedness, surveillance and response.
WHO support countries as they coordinate the efforts of multiple sectors of the government and partners – including bi- and multilaterals, funds and foundations, civil society organizations and private sector – to attain their health objectives and support their national health policies and strategies.
Between July 19-22,1946 at the International Health Conference held in New York, with 51 membercountries representatives of the UN, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the International Labor Organization (ILO), United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), OIHP (Center for International public Health Office in Paris), PAHO, Red Cross, world Federation of Trade Unions and representatives of the Rockefeller Foundation have formed the constitution of the World Health Organization.
Representatives of 61 countries signed WHO Constitution on July 22, 1946. WHO, officially recognized by the Constitution, shall enter into force by at least 26 member states. Meanwhile aninterim committee has chosen to fulfill the WHO function during this period. The Interim Committee has conducted all the tasks for two years. . Yugoslavian Prof. Dr. Andrija Stamper chaired the Search Committee, completing all the work and on April 7, 1948 got approval from the 26 member countries. WHO began when the Constitution came into force on 7 April 1948 – a date we now celebrate every year as World Health Day.There are now more than 7000 people working in 150 country offices, in 6 regional offices and at the headquarters in Geneva.
WHO Website: http://www.who.int
-United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees Office of the United Nations was established by the General Assemblyon December 14, 1950. UNHCR goal is to protect refugees in order to regulate the international movements, to lead and empower them to resolve refugee problems worldwide. The main objective is to defend the rights and welfare of refugees. UNHCRfights to ensure the housing rights of anyone seeking asylum in another state and voluntary return, local integration and with a secure third country resettlement options. UNHCR, over a period of nearly fifty years, has helped up to 50 million people restart their lives.
UNHCR aims to reduce the incidence of displacement by the protection of human rights and by supporting governments and other institutions to create conditions, which are effective in resolving cases in peaceful way. In this context, UNHCR is seeking to strengthen the re-incorporation of refugees who return to their own countries and avoid a repetition of the events that create refugees. UNHCR, main goal is to work with no race, religion, political opinion and gender discrimination and in an impartial manner to provide protection and assistance to refugees and other people in accordance to their needs. Out of all activities,to meet the needs ofchildren and efforts to improve women’s rights are on the top of their list.
UNHCR Website: www.unhcr.org
–World Trade Organization (WTO)
World Trade Organization (WTO) is the legal and institutional body of the multilateral trading system. WTOrevealsdomestic trade lawshow to manage regulations of the government and a legal framework and a platform for the development of trade relations among nations through collective bargaining and negotiations.
The WTO was established on 1 January 1995. The party countries to Uruguay Round completed negotiations in15 December 1993, and in the Moroccan city Marrakech in April 1994, the ministers signed “Final Decision”. April 15, 1994, with the Marrakech Declaration, Uruguay Round has ratified negotiations on Tariffs and seven of the negotiations carried out under “to strengthen the world economy and more trade, investment, employment and the revenue increase” of the Trade and General Agreement (GATT). WTO, is an agreement that shapes negotiations of the Uruguay Round and is the continuing of GATT.
WTO Website: https://www.wto.org/
-United Nations Research Institute for Social Development (UNRISD)
UNRISD is an autonomous research institute that prepares policy analysis and multidisciplinary research on the social dimensions of contemporary development issueswithin the United Nations. Found in 1963 to conduct policy-oriented research on social development, UNRISD, offers regional commissions and specialized agencies and national institutions reports on this issue tothe United Nations General Secretary.
UNRISD Website: http://www.unrisd.org/
– Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)
Food and Agriculture Organization, founded in 1943, focuses on eliminating hunger and to improve the nutritional requirements. It is an organization that has become the United Nations’ specialized agency in 1946. The organization provides and helps the government and technical agencies with agriculture, forestry and fishery projects. Provides technical assistance at the country’s level in such matters. Develops educational projects, conducts research and gives seminars. The organization consults on issues such as production of agricultural products in the world, consumption, trade and storage, the development of natural resources, and afforestation. FAO keeps statistics and publish them in a newsletter.
The FAO is headquartered in Rome and have many offices in the world. After the 1960s, it has focused more on the development of agricultural products and the elimination of protein deficiency issues. Most of United Nations countries are members of FAO.
FAO Website: http://www.fao.org
-World Food Program (WFP)
As a joint project of United Nations General Assembly and the UN Food and Agriculture Organization’ (FAO), WorldFood Program was founded in 1961 as a joint project and work began in 1963, as a the United Nations organization.
Through food aid and financial aid, WFP works to support the economic development of member countries. The programs major organs are Food Aid Policies and Programs Committee (CFA), with the joint enterprise UN / FAO Administrative Unit. WFP especially aims to correct the immediate problem of the lack of natural food sources. The goods, money and services offered in the form of grants, is to provide balanced nutrition, to make land valuable and arable, and improve on irrigation.
WFP Website: http://www.wfp.org/
-United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF)
UNICEF, in 1946 was established with the name United Nations “International Children’s Emergency Fund”, and then in 1954 was given the responsibility, appointed to have publicity for the protection of children’s and create defense projects, to help meet basic needs of children and make sure children’s needsare successfully achieved.The words “International” and “emergency” has not changed despite the deletion of abbreviations.
UNICEF Website: www.unicef.org
-United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA)
Established in 1967,UNFPA is an institution and lead UN agency engaged in various activities in the social sense. Its primary objective is to fight poverty in the world. Their income source is financial support from the state.
-International Organization for Migration (IOM)
International Organization for Migration helps in emergencies, refugees to be placed in a new country, assistance for voluntary returns, immigrant health, and money transfers, and promote legal migration options.Headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland; IOM is an inter-governmental organization, consisting of 132 member states of the developing and developed countries. In1951, with the name Intergovernmental Committee for European Migration (ICEM) got affected by World War II and helped immigrantsand later took its current form by changing the name.
IOM Website: http://www.iom.int/
-International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC)
IFRC was established in 1919 based in Geneva, as a humanitarian organization. It is in charge of providing coordination for188 Red Cross and Red Crescent Society related toInternational Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement. The non-government associated, independent federation has received the Nobel Peace Award in the year 1963 together with the ICRC. 100 million voluntary members support it. Work is guided by seven fundamental principles. There are more activities seen during peace.
IFRC Website: http://www.ifrc.org