The ”Precariat and Social Security” Report Issued.
- “COVID-19 and Economic Uncertainty Have Deepened Precariat”
- “Security in the Tax and Social Security System is a Must”
- “Education Can Be a Cure for Precariat”
- “Struggle Starting from the Most Fragile Sector”
The ActHuman Social Inclusion Initiative, which has been carried out in cooperation with INGEV and Sabancı University Istanbul Policy Center for five years, is dedicated to providing solutions to the precarious employment problem becoming widespread in Turkey by the “Precariat and Social Security” report it has published.
Dr. Dr. Sarphan Uzunoğlu, it is indicated that precarious work, which can be defined as simply an ambiguous, unpredictable and risky way of working, is becoming a global norm every year, and the precariat problem in Turkey and the policies that could be produced against the possible social and economical problems in the expanding axis of the precariat are being discussed.
According to the report, about 9 million people are estimated to be working unregistered in Turkey, and 1 million people are working under temporary protection. The report also states that when 5.5 million unemployed young people, people who have been excluded from social and economic life, and people who are isolated from working life and civil life for legal reasons are included in the groups created by people who have no status and an unclear legal status, there is a high presence of precariat members among the actors who contribute to the continuation of economic activity.
Head of INGEV Mr. Vural Çakır:
“The main motivation of humanity is cultural transformation”
“According to UN research, 6 out of every 7 people feel insecure. It is determined that 1 billion people are undergoing mental treatment today.
The scale of inequalities on earth is on the rise: two large classes are forming, such as the super-rich on one side and the increasingly precarious people on the other… Factors such as artificial intelligence and robotic technologies are causing the need of the super-rich for a precarious group to gradually decrease. Inequality and insecurity are feeding each other. The precarious people who have been forced to leave conflict zones and the lack of identity constitute the largest part of this situation.
Those who live precariously are more prone to populism.
We are acting to identify the problem in Act Human reports, as well as providing a perspective for a solution.
I think that the main motivation of humanity should be cultural transformation. Unesco defines culture simply as our way of living together. The individualism produced by liberalism and marketing ideology shows itself in almost every variable that the life culture based on the free market and status-based consumption cannot take humanity further than this. Within the scope of our ACTHUMAN Social Inclusion Initiative, we are adopting a perspective that is based on the ownership of the public and society with the Precariat and Social Assurance Report that we have reviewed in detail.”
IPC Director Prof. Dr. Fuat Keyman:
“The basic benchmark of what sort of Turkey we will live in will be our approach to precariat and social security issues”
“Every year we focus on one of the most important fragile groups in the world. Precaria is one of the most important groups for today’s world, tomorrow’s world, today’s Turkey and tomorrow’s Turkey. As we begin the second century of the foundation of the Republic, one of the most important concepts of how we will continue will be the problem of precarity and insecurity. It will be one of the important criteria of what kind of Turkey we will live in. The report we will share today is actually the beginning of a process. From now on, our cooperation with INGEV will continue.”
HIGHLIGHTS FROM THE REPORT:
“COVID-19 and Economic Uncertainty Have Deepened Precariat”
In the report it is emphasized that the issue of the precariat is critical both politically and socially, especially in an environment where trends such as economic uncertainty and anti-immigrantism that emerged in the post-COVID-19 period are on the rise, and that unless both the state, private sector actors and civil society produce policies that are consistent with each other and can spread over a wide term, and these policies are not aimed at the conflict of the relevant actors, but to reconcile them, and ultimately to break the impact of large waves of the precariat, the crises that are at the center of the precariat may deepen.
Nine solutions to precariat from different environments
In the report, which provides social policy recommendations aimed at prioritizing secure employment in employment processes in Turkey, diluting fragile labor conditions, and making secure work convenient for both employees and employers by considering the evaluations from the participants consisting of academicians, private sector, press and non-governmental organizations and the relevant literature, there are nine categories of policy recommendations against the chronicity of precariat.
Existing laws must be applied
There are expert opinions that even the proper implementation of existing laws and regulations in Turkey may constitute an obstacle to the chronicling of precariat, as especially highlighted in the report. It seems that the common request of representatives from different sectors is supervision and fair implementation of laws.
The perspective on entrepreneurship and employee status should be transformed
The report, which states that the boundary between individual enterprise and individual employment is being faded away, emphasizes that in this process, when technology and markets make everyone entrepreneurial, it is necessary to transform the laws and regulations in a way that prioritizes secure work, and definitions related to employee and entrepreneur status should be transformed accordingly.
“Trust in the tax and social security system is a must”
According to the report, where it is stated that one of the factors feeding the practice of unregistered work is the perception that the tax and social security system is the assurance of the health, daily life, and future of the individuals weakens in the community, increasing the belief of all sectors of the society that taxes turn into equitable and inclusive investments and a belief that healthy and sustainable retirement systems are sound and sustainable needs to be placed especially in the younger generations and in vulnerable groups.
“Education may be a cure for precariat”
In the report, which stated that the programs should be created based on a long-term strategy without relying on the instant supply and demand balances of the institutions such as the Higher Education Authority and Ministry of National Education and the constraints of the established system in each step where vocational education is being provided, including higher and secondary education, a strategical action call is made to the organizations that determine the educational strategy for the fight against precariat.
A method with incentive function for secure work
The report also emphasizes that the participation of vulnerable groups such as women, youth and migrants in employment should be supported by programs such as incentives and grant programs. The importance of supporting these groups at the stage of employment participation and at the stage of entrepreneurship and ensuring that they establish sustainable business models or exist within such models is underlined.
Easy organization is the path to secure work
The report also states that the technical and legal obstacles to organizing should be removed by the state. In the report, which states that even in short-term jobs, the way that people working in organizations such as trade unions should establish membership ties and these organizations should negotiate with the employer and use the rights arising around the law should be paved, it is highlighted that the state and trade unions should take responsibility for incentives and follow-up.
Long-term vision of technology and economy
The report indicates that technology and economic transformation are the key factors in precariat and underlines that technology and economic policies should be shaped in the axis of the interests of all stakeholders of the working life, with the awareness that there will be no safe working opportunity for large masses unless technological development takes place in a stable and fair manner.
Transnational companies should not be ignored
The report also states that the growing market share and determinism of transnational companies should be taken into account. It is emphasized that the understanding of flexible and physical employment that does not adhere to the limits imposed by globalization increases unemployment in one place, while creating temporary employment on the other hand, deepens precariat and creates unfair competition. In this context, it is underlined that the way for transnational supervision and surveillance mechanisms should be paved.
“Struggle starting from the most fragile sector”
In the report, it is stated that a special audit and improvement program should be applied to these sectors, especially by prioritizing the special sectors where precarious work, such as textile and seasonal agricultural labor, has become almost standard.